Anyone interested in finding new approaches to save energy or come up with an option that will offer your whole home with electrical power regardless of the situations (think electric restrictions and all-natural disasters such as earthquakes), will inform you that solar panels are a lot more than handy. If you have three phase power a better alternative is probably to be to install a larger program without tilt frames. Most of the solar panel frames we offer are created from anodized aluminum due to the strength, durability, and resistance of the material. Renusol America is regarded a major innovator in pitch roof and flat roofed solar mounting systems. We all know by now that solar energy systems are a win-win. The 1st step towards creating your own solar panel is obtaining your hands on expense-effective, but functional solar cells. The line is routed back to the array, where it is either fed by means of a pulley mounted at the finish of a N-S frame member or terminated at a cleat. View the Clenergy installation videos for flat mount frames (tin & tile) and tilted frames (tin only). Simply because they’re not dependent on your roof, ground-mounted solar panels are set at the perfect angle to optimize power production. Clients not confident on rail string lengths ought to get in touch with us, solar panels are of various widths. In 2010, 15.9 GW of solar PV system installations were completed, with solar PV pricing survey and market place study business PVinsights reporting development of 117.8% in solar PV installation on a year-on-year basis. 11. The floating support structure of claim 9, wherein stated mooring lines are pre- tensioned and released a fixed length at the time of installation. Important items to consider when planning a ground-mounted solar PV installation are the soil circumstances as properly as necessary ground clearance i.e. for flooding. If each and every solar panel produces 1.5-kilowatt hours of electrical energy, then to offset your entire energy bill, you’ll need to have 20 solar panels. Mono PERC cells are now the most well-known and effective cell sort with most producers which includes Winaico, Trina Solar, Q cells, LONGi Solar, Jinko Solar , Risen and JA Solar now all utilizing PERC cell architecture. Eco Marine Energy is at the forefront of developing low emission & fuel saving solutions for ships, Our personal computer systems also offer a handle interface among renewable energy & other systems on-board ships. Divide 216 inches, which is the leading-to-bottom length of the roof minus the 12 inch border on every single side, by the lengthy-edge of every single panel and you get 3.3 panels -obviously you can’t reduce a panel so you can get three rows on your roof. On the flat ground, you can position solar panels in any path you want to maximize sun exposure, unlike on a slanted roof. Passive solar trackers automatically move solar panels to face straight into the sun with out making use of any electrical energy. Marine photovoltaic (PV) panels and mounting frame kits are developed to withstand the harsh situations at sea & are suitable for all vessels ranging from coastal vessels to ocean-going passenger ferries & cargo ships. The Terragrif is designed and created according to the mounting structure implemented and based on the numerous photovoltaic panels used. The aluminium frames around the solar panel, hugging the glass covering on leading and the back-sheet at the bottom, has been important, although typically ignored element of a solar panel. Don’t overlook you can use our patented GemLock folding struts to make your bimini tops and dodgers smooth and tight however ultra easy to break down and stow – even with solar panels in place. They just hang” or drape” the mounting method over your roof and your solar panels are attached to this bracket. Our tilt frames are the solution of innovation from years over years of solar installation expertise. Because of how transportable and adjustable the mounting frame is I am in a position to take it anyplace with me with ease and use it regardless of the time of the year. They are internationally recognized to be a manufacturer of a diverse item mix including solar mounting systems for little to utility scale applications, waste management solutions, and customized bracket manufacturing. That indicates this DIY portable solar panel stand mount is anywhere from 50% to 75% far more cost-effective than putting a set of legs on every single panel. Browse ground mounts, roof mounts, pole mounts and other racking options from IronRidge, Rapid Mount, S-five and much more. With the increasing levels of rooftop photovoltaic systems, the power flow becomes two-way. Armed with the information of solar panel size and solar panel weight, we can make a calculation about how significantly a entire solar panel technique weighs – which in turn can aid you comprehend whether your roof can assistance a new solar panel system or not.
If you are retrofitting an existing constructing, it’s not worth it to use integrated mount simply because of the price and waste of removing the existing roofing components and throwing them away. So, if I utilised one solar panel stand leg set for each panel that would expense about $250 for 5 solar panels or as a lot as $500 if the less expensive stand legs were out of stock or not accessible and had to get the thicker ones. I utilized PVWatts to assess my install and found that the price of an $800 tilt frame would take ten years to recoup the whilst one further panel would take two.five years and two would take only 2.6 years. I am considering it will be a good concept to tilt the panel toward the sun in winter and when summer season comes, adjust the panel near flat or 10″ to maximise the output. The much less power intensive casting procedure reduces the expense of manufacturing mono cells. 72-cell industrial solar panels are about 13 inches longer than 60-cell residential panels. You can use either a standard ground mount, which fixes the panels in a single location, or a pole mount, which puts them greater off the ground. Tilt legs merely lift the panels up to a fixed angle, so that they face straight into the sunlight. IronRidge is a major PV racking manufacturer creating high quality roof-mount racking. Also, it is essential to attain a firm and secure attachment of the array mounting brackets to the roof. All of our solar mounting equipment suppliers are approved by the CEC (Clean Power Council) which signifies that their items tick all the boxes when it comes to compliance and security. We carry a wide selection of solar panel mounting alternatives to assessment for your certain solar panel power project. Manufacturers making dual glass solar panels consist of Jinko solar, LONGi Solar, Trina Solar, Yingli Solar and JA solar. A number of manufactures such as LG power , REC, Trina and Canadian Solar have gone one step further and developed multi-busbar (MBB) systems using up to 12 or 16 quite thin round wires rather than flat busbars. These components offer international array field stability by transferring the wind forces from the array field to strategic mooring support points. That means that now it is the time to glue all these lines of cells to the major frame and across the perforated frame. A newcomer on the solar mounting scene, non-penetrating and ballasted (or weighted) mounting systems are becoming super common thanks to the fact that you never have to drill, screw, or bolt something to your roof. If they are tilted they will execute much better but that will improve the cost of installation and you may possibly not be capable to match as a lot of panels as if they were laid flat against the roof. You will save a lot of income by going by way of this DIY solar panel project and producing your personal solar panel, too, as solar energy systems typically price a lot of income. Pole Mounts help up to two.5kW of PV panels per 8” pole (offered separately). The IronRidge SGA ground mount makes use of XR1000 rail, which is the identical equipment used for heavy-duty roof mounts. You have your frame ready and the holes are drilled, you have connected all the cells in several lines to match the length of your primary frame. We attach clamps to the standing seam of the roof, then either a rail is attached to the clamps or the solar PV panels are fixed directly to the standing seam clamps. As plants use the sun’s power to create energy which is food for them, solar cells are making use of the same power drawn from the sunlight in order to produce electricity you can use to offer your house with electrical power and energy something that runs on DC current once your DIY solar panels are carried out. Our style & consulting services contain green ship & eco ship concept designs, renewable energy surveys, renewable power systems style & consulting support for new ship and retrofit projects. The power temperature coefficient is the amount of power loss as cell temperature increases. When you feel of solar panels, you normally picture them on the roof of your residence. You can location your solar panels anyplace, in any direction. Solarframe solar mounting systems manufacture and distribute PV mounting options throughout Southern Africa. Considering that you are removing an whole rail from the equation, you will have 1 significantly less rail to spend for and set up, fewer entry points in your roof, and you can position your solar panels the ideal way for creating solar power. PV cells come in a regular size of 156 mm by 156 mm, which is roughly 6 inches extended and six inches wide.
This bigger frame can assistance a solar panel of up to 90 cm width. Additionally, the present fastening method is preassembled to a building roof through an simple to install roof clamp, prior to assembly of the solar panel assembly to the fastening technique. We will constantly ensure that the mounting program fits the panels you are right after. A range of goods, solar cell technologies and accessories suitable for ships are offered and customized panels are also achievable upon request. These mounts are desirable for several solar power systems since they preserve the panels up and out of the way, which is also the most frequent spot for optimal sunlight. When a solar panel is exposed to sunlight, the photon of sunlight knocks out the electron (-ve charge) of the solar cell and hence it acts as a supply of electron and hence the source of existing. 0019 More specifically, a common array is created to be supported at the north and south ends with the constant tension mooring layout with four continuous rope segments, 1 for every single quadrant of the array. As PV cells have turn into far more effective they in turn generate much more current and more than recent years most makers have moved from 3 busbars to five or 6 busbars. SolarEdge differs to Tigo in that the SolarEdge optimisers must be employed together with the SolarEdge inverters, although the Tigo optimisers can be be attached to any current panels as an add-on optimiser. Even though the price of solar panels continues to drop, new innovations in solar mounting will also bring the overall installation value down as nicely. They have mounting systems obtainable for pitched roofs, flat roofs, ground mounting alternatives and non-penetrating standing seam metal roof options. Since 1996, Solar Electric Provide has supplied the finest solar panel mounts from trustworthy companies. They’re a intelligent environmental option, because they harness solar power from the sun and transform it into electricity by way of solar panels. Pole mounted trackers that help 4 to 12 PV modules are accessible and frequently utilized for small stand-alone systems, especially water pumping applications. Pole mounts can be installed above foliage & snow banks to keep the panels clear of debris. Therefore, much of the incident sunlight power is wasted by solar modules, and they can give far higher efficiencies if illuminated with monochromatic light. As easy to install as hanging a image frame on a hook on the wall, your solar technician will simply attach your solar panel to the pre-installed mounting hardware and you are accomplished. Paying to have solar panels cleaned is typically not a very good investment researchers located panels that had not been cleaned, or rained on, for 145 days for the duration of a summer time drought in California, lost only 7.four% of their efficiency. Based on the climate, your roof’s building, and your solar energy wants, horizontal solar panel installation might be the right option for your property. Most residential rooftops have a tendency to be sloped close enough to this optimal mounting angle that they don’t need any extra tilt adjustments. Solar panel frames will vary significantly in shapes, size and weights. On the other hand, panels on the ground can interfere with your home’s all round aesthetic far more than they would on the roof. 12. The floating help structure of claim 9, wherein the connected array modules are arranged in a usually rectangular or square array geometry functionally divided into quadrants employing a N-S axis an E-W axis as dividing lines so as to form NW, NE, SE, and SW quadrants, and wherein said mooring and anchoring method utilizes a single continuous running line for every of mentioned four quadrants. I would recommend GEM Power to any person looking for a Solar PV provider. TRITEC’s product variety involves high-quality PV mounting systems, solar modules, inverters, solar storage systems, sensors and PV accessories. Ahead of deciding on solar panel mounts for your property, it’s critical to discover out how much each will price you, including the labor to have them installed. You can of course mix and match our hardware and strategies to produce specifically what you require to suit your boat and the solar panels you’ve selected. SolarTown gives all the needed clamps or cap strips to assistance your installation. There is some variation from brand to brand, and if you happen to be installing a massive-scale solar panel system (such as for a warehouse or a municipal constructing) your panels will be closer to 6 feet extended.
If you decide to add a tracking method to your ground-mounted solar array, you have the alternative of either a single-axis or a dual-axis system. Based on how your property is situated, your solar panels may actually receive a lot more sunlight if they are installed vertically. Busbars are thin wires or ribbons which run down every single cell and carry the electrons (current) by means of the solar panel. Residential systems are typically greater off installing a couple of additional panels on a fixed array. Power optimisers from businesses such as Tigo and SolarEdge have been accessible as an add-on component for a lot of years but now each SolarEdge and Tigo are creating panels with inbuilt optimisers inside the junction box on the back of the panel. With hundreds of distinct solar panels on the market it is tough for these not in the sector to recognize good quality panels which will carry out over the expected 25 year life of a solar photovoltaic (PV) technique. Developed in a state-of-the-art production facility, the solar frames we provide are molded and assembled using high-precision tools (<0.02mm variance) to ensure reliable performance and a lengthy product lifespan. 0001 The present invention relates typically to systems for mounting and supporting solar panels, like photovoltaic panels for electrical energy production and thermal panels for fluid heating, as effectively as for supporting concentrating solar power systems utilizing lenses or mirrors and much more specifically, the present invention relates to a modular floating help structure for a solar panel array that can be assembled on land and deployed in massive preassembled units and moored to land utilizing a mooring technique that distributes loads broadly inside and around the assistance structure. SAE connectors were utilised on some older solar panels, and although we're sure MC4 is better overall, SAE has the benefit of being rapid-disconnect. Single-axis tracking systems move your solar panels over the course of the day to stick to the sun as it moves by way of the sky. Other manufacturers producing shingled cell solar panels contain Yingli Solar and Znshine. Ballasted footing mounts, such as concrete or steel bases that use weight to safe the panel program in position and do not demand through penetration. Horizontal solar panels are so frequent, that it can come as a surprise to several that solar panels can be installed vertically. We offer you a top quality variety of framing options from roof mount, ground mount and pole mounting options. In other situations, roofs are merely as well complicated, with too numerous vents and odd angles, to support a huge array of solar panels, so ground mount might be the only choice. Overall, for a standard residential solar system of five kW, washing panels halfway by way of the summer season would translate into a mere $20 gain in electricity production until the summer time drought ends—in about two ½ months. The sales manager is advising tilt frames facing north, but the installer thinks it really is not worth it. The sales manager has quoted a $400-500 saving if we lie the panels flat. Even though roof mounts are up out of the way, they normally end up costing much more in the end soon after the installation is total. All solar cells and panels are rated making use of regular test circumstances (STC - measured at 25°C) and slowly reduce power output as cell temperature increases. 0029 Yet one more object of the present invention is to offer a mooring method for the inventive floating solar panel array that will avert overstress of the structural elements that constitute the array field. The REC twin peak 2 range of split panels have been available for some time and now most majar panel companies are following suit with split panels getting released by Trina Solar, Q-cells, Canadian Solar, LONGi Solar, JA Solar, Risen, Phono solar, Jinko solar and most other makers. If your rooftop is flat, you can use tilt legs to face panels so that they are much more perpendicular to the sun. A PV junction box is attached to the back of the solar panel and functions as its output interface. Quick Mount PV was founded in 2006 to bring code-compliant, expense-successful, waterproof rooftop mounting systems to the solar market. The rails rigidly support solar modules of all sizes. Holes 196 supply implies for positioning, indexing, and connecting the N and S panel supports, 132, 134, respectively, to the frame members using screws. They are usually lightweight and developed to be adjustable so that the panels can be tilted to the appropriate position.
If you live in an area that receives a lot of snow in the winter, becoming in a position to effortlessly sweep the snow off of your solar panels is a significant comfort. If your solar panel contractor advises you that horizontal solar panels are the best choice for your solar requirements, you do not need a unique inverter. The Solar PV panels are then clamped to the rails, maintaining the panels really close to the roof to decrease wind loading. For one particular point, solar panels need to face either south or west to obtain direct sunlight. Once you have bought your solar panel you will need to have to decide on a safe fixing method, our comprehensive range of permanent and non permanent solar mounting items consist of totally free standing A-frames normally utilized with caravanners and motorhome customers to ground and roof mounting systems made for huge scale PV arrays. You can set up solar panels on the ground of any house, and they’ll generate energy. The TerraGrif is a metal spring-toothed blade, positioned amongst the module and the mounting structure, ensuring the optimum equipotential bonding of a photovoltaic installation. Yet another reality is that you actually need solar cells in order to make your personal solar panel, so you may as effectively choose the ones that are a bit pricier but which come with warranty, possessing assured quality to support your investment. Nevertheless, there are widespread troubles involved in any installation, whether or not the array is fixed or tracking, mounted at ground level, or on a pole or constructing. By creating your personal solar cells, you will be practically making an imitation of photosynthesis. In addition, if you don’t have the further space, installing solar panels on the ground will leave tiny to no room for your lawn, flower beds, or other landscaping. Solar panel efficiency is one of numerous important aspects to contemplate and is dependent on each the PV cell sort and cell configuration. Producers making bifacial solar panels contain LG power, Trina solar , Jinko Solar and Yingli Solar. Swivel mounting and tuning the panels will make a dramatic difference to charging overall performance. When you contain the mounting hardware and other equipment for your panels, the total weight will be closer to 3-four pounds per square foot. On the other hand, land (the ground itself) is increasingly high-priced and may be usefully employed for a quantity of purposes other than solar array installation. Solar Photovoltaic (PV) modules create electricity from sunlight use of photovoltaic effects of the sun battery semiconductor materials, which can be fed into the mains electricity supply of a building or sold to the public electricity grid. In contrast, ground-mounted solar systems can be sized to match your electricity consumption with out the space restrictions of a rooftop system. We developed our saddle-type post and fork mounts with solar panels in thoughts. A support device for anchoring photovoltaic panels on a roof. 0005 Nevertheless, neither the foregoing Japanese patent application, nor any other recognized land based systems, give particular vital solutions for assembling and deploying huge scale arrays on water, nor does any known art teach extensive mooring and anchoring options for placement of big scale arrays on water. Receiving a mount that’s built to hold eight panels is much much more cost-effective than obtaining two mounts developed to hold four panels each and every. Pole mounted solar usually incorporates tracking systems, which automatically tilt the solar panels to capture the optimal quantity of sunshine. The prime countries of supplier is China, from which the percentage of solar panel assistance frames provide is one hundred% respectively. The third alternative you have – is to make up for any lost power by just adding an added solar panel. Even so, if you have an older roof or are in any way concerned about no matter whether your roof can support the extra weight of solar panels, talk to a roofing firm. Ground mount pv systems,high preassembly ,strength structure and numerous design and straightforward to install , ground mount racking will be the best chooice for your solar panel mount and rack systems. Note: A single issue that you do not want is entirely flat panels (angle = 0°). They’re created to maximize the efficiency of the panels by maintaining them oriented in just the proper way to catch that direct beam of sunlight full on. This signifies enabling the tilt of the panels to change all through the year, and also allowing the angle of the panel to adjust throughout the day.
By combining a heritage of excellence in German engineering with American innovation, in 2011 Renusol America introduces the groundbreaking, American-made Renusol CS60- the first one particular piece mounting system for PV panels. Regardless of whether a solar roof mount, ground mount, prime of pole mount, side of pole mount, tower mount or solar carport, we can accommodate your specifications. 7,758,011 entitled Adjustable Mounting Assembly for Standing Seam Panels” which issued to Haddock on Jul. For use on ships, PV modules or solar panels need to have to be installed correctly utilizing specialised mounting frames. You will also want to develop a frame for your solar cells and the frame will be the base for your DIY solar panel, so that is exactly where a hand saw will come as much more than handy. Altering the tilt angle of an array to account for seasonal changes in sun altitude is not needed. Keep in mind that there are different solar mounts used for each and every application: flush mounting for roofs, solar pole mounts , and solar ground mounts. Certain standards exist for the roof mounting of solar systems. For the duration of the summer time solar panels can often lay flat on the ground and make about 90% of the energy that they would make if they were up on the rack. The entire mounting system expenses about the identical as getting an additional 100-watt solar panel but in the course of the winter the solar stand aids make twice as much energy. Most solar panels for rooftop solar installations are created up of 60 solar cells, whilst the standard for industrial solar installations is 72 cells (and can go up to 98 cells or far more). The next step then is to calculate the total number of solar modules we want to mount at our web site. This type of mounting technique is effectively suited for web sites where excavation is not feasible such as capped landfills and simplifies decommissioning or relocation of solar module systems. In addition, if your residence utilizes a lot of electrical energy, your roof may possibly not be huge enough for a solar power program that meets your electrical energy wants. Pole Mounts allow you to adjust the tilt angle to maximize your power output all through the seasons. Now solar panels are so low-cost relative to a couple of years ago South pacing panels can make sense in Australia. An adjustable roof mount with tilt angles up to 45 degrees for maximum solar functionality. Discarded powder-coated bed-frames (normally 2″ angle) are also most useful for this sort of exercise ~ and with a bit of imagination can be utilised as a base for an tilt-adjustable string of panels. MT Solar pole mounts are one more wonderful alternative. As solar panels manufacturers constantly seek techniques to lessen expenses, item design and style is of course influenced by this objective. With the assist of the web and our personal ingenuity we constructed an easy transportable, collapsible, and storable solar panel mount out of practically nothing but PVC and zip ties. There are a lot of elements determining the variety of solar mounting very best suited for your house or enterprise. Landpower Landscape Ballasted Solar Mounting is applicable to huge scale flat roof module installation. I have the solar panels and 24 Lead acid batteries(100Amph every single) to power the property at day and night. The pole will likely put the panels six or a lot more feet up in the air and let you maintain that ground space. Every fastening system 29 includes a roof clamp 31 and a catch or mounting bracket 33. Just before you start arranging the cells, linking negative to constructive parts as you go, you might think about making tiny frames in the number of cells you have and inside of the major frame of your template. The Terragrif is held by the anchoring of the claws in the frame material and mounting method. Solar mounts are not just used to hold solar panels in location during windy situations. Trackers are ground mounts that adjust automatically, ensuring your panels constantly face straight at the sun. Ground mount systems demand appropriate land space, and they look industrial. We have chosen different brands of solar panels with various frame thickness, from 31 mm to 50 mm to submit them to a mechanical resistance test. With each other with structural engineers, the solar panel market has looked for effective structural frames that are light in weight and expense efficient to install, construct and that are capable to carry the weight of the solar panel method. One particular kind of passive tracker is driven by a closed Freon system that causes the tracker to follow the sun with adequate accuracy for flat-plate PV modules, such as the Zomeworks In higher wind regions a powered tracker might be preferred.
I generally have about 500 watts in solar panels setup on my stand which means I have 5 panels total. We’re totally off-grid and hookup-free of charge here at Gnomad Residence, and without sunlight we can not perform, or charge our phones, or write these epic vanlife guides And with our roof-mounted solar panels , we had no way to charge up our batteries with out parking the van directly in the sun. And you do not want to set up the solar array proper up to the edge of the roof. Do the identical calculation for the number of panels across the width of the roof (336 inches ÷ 40 inch panels = eight panels or eight columns across the horizontal width of the roof. But when it comes to your solar mounting alternatives, a single size does not fit all. If you need a complete system please pay a visit to our Triangle Tilt Mounting System page or you can get in touch with us anytime with your requirements and we can tailor a system to your demands. All solar mounting systems have a limit on building height, generally 10m, occasionally 20m. Hybrid marine energy options such as solar energy save fuel, minimize pollution and are cost effective. We purchased a solar panel tilt mount from Amazon, but it just did not do what we necessary it to. This mount was created for fixed mounting on a roof, so it did not simply fold up for storage – we had to unscrew and screw in several wingnuts to set it up and break it down. 32 There may also be occupational hazards of solar panel installation and maintenance. Roof-mounted systems are a great choice – there is a wide range of components and systems out there to custom-fit virtually any module configuration to nearly any roof – flat or pitched, creating heights of up to 200m. Right here are the prime 3 items that you need to know about ground-mounted solar panels. See our ‘Compare Solar Panels’ web page for info on how heat affects solar pv efficiency. For example, the present accessory mounting brackets or catches can be secured to traditional roof clamps such as those disclosed in the following U.S. Pat. The Renogy Solar Panel Pole Mount is designed for off-grid applications when mounting to a roof is not best. The Terragrif is attached in the module’s frame and on the mounting method. Every of the modules’ frames have to have its personal earth cable (in six mm²) connected to the main earthing cable (>= ten mm²), whilst avoiding the creation of a tiny bridge amongst the modules’ frames. 16. The floating support structure of claim 1, wherein mentioned coupling hardware contains a splice disposed among stated E-W frame members of adjoin array modules, mentioned splice configured and contoured to conform closely to the sides of said E-W frame members, wherein mentioned E-W frame members include spaced-apart frame member insertion elements that cooperate with at least one particular corresponding splice insertion element disposed on said splice, such that as stated splice is slidably mated to and amongst mentioned E-W frame members of adjoining array modules, a frame member insertion element engages a corresponding splice insertion element to retain stated splice and stop it from getting pulled apart from stated frame member, and wherein mentioned splice can then be further translated along mentioned frame member and into additional engagement with said frame member till mentioned splice insertion element engages said a second frame member insertion element so as to hold mentioned splice firmly in place. In this case, a fixed roof mount is the easiest and most price-successful option. Clenergy ezRack ECO Rail Kit – two x 4200mm Rails Pair of Clenergy ezRack ECO rails, every single becoming 4200mm extended – suitable for mounting 4 x 60 cell solar panels (~1000mm width). This effectively splits the solar panel into 2 smaller panels of 50% capacity, which work in parallel. Monocrystalline solar panels are slightly larger in efficiency than polycrystalline panels due to the fact each and every utilizes a different manufacturing method. For several the greater cost of the these premium N-kind solar panels ($1 or more per W) is outweighed by the higher efficiency which ranges from 20 to 22.six%, improved overall performance at higher temperatures and minimal light induced degradation (LID), which implies considerably higher power yield over the life of the panel. All Terragrifs are studied and realized according to the mounting program and photovoltaic panels. As an alternative of installing rails and then mounting the solar panels to them, your solar provider will set up a series of mounts that will connect with the constructed-in mounting hardware on your solar panels.