Based on the error of mechanical design and processing to put forward the corresponding improvement measures

  Social economy in the rapid development of China’s industrial production development speed, the current period of China is the most critical stage of mechanized production, the most prominent representative of this period is the development of mechanization and automation. With the popularization and application of mechanization and automation, pushing it to a higher level of development. The past relatively single mechanization theory has not been able to adapt to the needs of modern industrial production, modern people for mechanical product quality and performance requirements are increasingly high. The accuracy of mechanical products is the key factor affecting their quality and performance, therefore, improving the accuracy of products and reducing errors have become the goal and focus of people’s attention. As we all know, errors are unavoidable, and there are many factors affecting errors, such as differences in product size, model and specification, which may lead to errors, so the causes of errors must be reasonably analyzed, and effective measures must be taken to reduce errors, so that the quality and performance of products can be improved.

  1 Mechanical design and processing errors and improve countermeasures

  The formation of mechanical products go through three processes, such as product design, processing and quality audit, among which the initial design is the most critical link in the process of product formation, which is directly related to the quality of later product processing and production. Therefore, in the design process, the correct choice of materials, combined with the actual situation of the product, choose a reasonable design and processing technology, taking into account the advanced nature of the product and practicality, for the factors that may affect the quality of the product, to give full consideration and take precautions in advance. Good design concept needs scientific and rigorous processing technology to achieve, and the processing stage is an important stage of product forming, must be strictly in accordance with the design drawings of the process flow to ensure that the processing equipment has a stable and reliable performance.

It should be noted that during the processing, the product needs to be measured, and the accuracy of the measurement or else directly affects the accuracy of the product. After the completion of product processing, that is, into the product testing phase, which is also a link that should not be ignored, if not handled properly, it is likely that the qualified products are mistakenly tested as unqualified products, and unqualified products are used as qualified products, which in turn affects the stable operation of production. These three stages experienced by mechanical products are an organic whole, and the problem of product accuracy is also throughout these three stages, therefore, the operation must be strictly in accordance with the specifications at each stage, only in this way can the accuracy of the product be improved and the error be reduced, so as to ensure the quality of the product.

  1.1 Discuss the errors in mechanical design

  Improve the actual professional work level and ability of relevant personnel, especially the professional quality and ability of personnel in the design process, is the most direct and effective way to reduce the incidence of errors in the design and processing of mechanical products. Because the quality of the design is directly related to the subsequent production of the product. So to ensure that the professional skills of designers, especially to the proficiency of the processing process is very important, otherwise it is likely to design products that simply can not be produced or can not guarantee the accuracy of the product required, in order to improve design efficiency, save design time, shorten the design cycle, it is necessary to take into account a variety of factors at the beginning of the design, to prevent in advance, reduce and try to avoid errors.

  1.1.1 Material issues

  Design work needs to focus on the process of mechanical material issues, only to ensure the reasonableness of the choice of materials to ensure that the performance indicators are met, not only that, we also need to strictly control the economic performance of the selected materials, as far as possible to ensure the lowest cost to meet the basic requirements of the design, this is a basic work, do a good job in order to do a good job for the subsequent work to pave the way.

  1.1.2 Processing process

  Each type of machining process on the physical properties of the material produced will be very different, so it is easy to cause the parts to error. In the processing process of mechanical products, the first thing is to fully understand the properties of the materials used, and at the same time for the product type, the possible stress changes are considered, so as to reduce the incidence of errors and improve the accuracy of the parts.

  1.1.3 Machinability

  The process of processing the product should focus on the machinability of the part itself, which is usually easy to ignore when designing the part. Through thorough consideration, so as to ensure the effective optimization of the design work, the shape of the part is reasonably simplified, so as to provide processing convenience, but also to ensure that the error rate is reduced, to ensure the accuracy of the parts.

  1.2 The existence of errors in machining

  1.2.1 The error caused by the operation of the machine

  The most common use in machinery and equipment to be machine tools, after a long period of use to produce the possibility of error will be higher, usually in the machine tool error phenomenon is prevalent in the spindle rotation, guide position, transmission chain transmission and other aspects of error. Differences between the actual operation of the spindle and theoretical knowledge lead to errors, in the processing of rotary parts, the existence of rotary error on the coaxiality of the parts, deflection, circular runout, etc. caused a serious impact, reducing the accuracy of the parts. For the machine tool, the position of the guide is the key element to determine the accuracy of its machined parts, the existence of the position error of the guide is very detrimental to the processing of parts, analysis of the causes of its position error, mainly due to improper installation of the guide and the resulting installation error, there is the manufacturing accuracy of the guide itself, as well as the gradual deformation of the guide in the long use of error. The transmission chain for the machine operation to transfer the required power and energy, once the error will have a negative impact on the relative operation of the machine, and then affect the accuracy of the parts, these are the issues that deserve our attention.

  1.2.2 Errors caused by machine tools

  There are two main types of machine tools in operation, namely tools and fixtures, which are much more likely to cause errors than tools. The actual use of a variety of degrees of wear and tear due to tooling, resulting in errors in the processing of parts, and each machine uses a different type of tooling, so the degree of error caused by the parts are not the same, in general, the error caused by the tooling is not obvious. Machine tool fixtures in machining is essential auxiliary equipment, its role is used to control the position of the tool, parts and machine tools, so the fixture generated by the error is more significant.

  1.2.3 Error caused by over-positioning of machining

  There are many factors that lead to errors in machining, among which the main reason that affects the positioning error of machining is the non-coincidence of datum points and the positioning vice error itself. In machining, the accuracy of the datum point is very critical. If it does not coincide with the designed datum point, a great error will occur, which directly affects the accuracy of the mechanical parts. The datum surface of the workpiece and the positioning surface of the fixture make up the positioning vice, so if the manufacturing accuracy of the positioning surface of the fixture is not enough, or there is debris on the positioning surface, it will cause inaccurate positioning and thus manufacturing errors.

  1.3 Strategies for effective improvement of errors

  In order to prevent serious errors in the production of mechanical parts, it is necessary to develop effective improvement measures to prevent them. First of all, it is necessary to control as much as possible the appearance of direct errors in machining, to make a comprehensive consideration of possible errors, to pay attention to possible errors in the design process, to stop them at the root, and to choose the right machine tools and fixtures by considering possible errors. Secondly, some errors cannot be eliminated or avoided, but only compensated, which requires the analysis of the known amount of error, take to add raw materials or machining size to leave a margin and other ways to make up for the error. Finally, the parts that have already been processed with errors are used in groups, and the processed semi-finished or finished products are matched or further processed in groups according to the size and range of their errors, which is not only relatively simple but also highly economical.

  2 Conclusion

  The strengthening of China’s social and economic strength can not be separated from the support of industrial production, and in the industrial production of machinery production occupies a very key position, is to promote the development of industrial production key components. In order to ensure the excellent performance of all aspects of mechanical equipment, reduce the incidence of errors in mechanical design and processing is the most direct way. The actual production of machinery can not avoid the error, but can avoid the design and processing of the error generation. In the future production practice, the design and processing technology for mechanical products will continue to improve, to create a favorable environment for the stable development of industrial production in China.